Colonoscopy without sedation. Possible..but does it miss the point?

January 18, 2009

Colonoscopy, repeated at 5-10 year intervals, is recommended to detect colon cancer after age 50. As the American (and global) population ages, more colonoscopies will be performed, and more colonoscopists are needed.

One controversy is – who is qualified to perform a colonoscopy? Family physicians with special training argue that they are, and this would certainly ease the pressure on gastroenterologists (or offer a competitive threat?).

Another contentious area is – who is qualified to provide the sedation that most patients expect? Some gastroenterologists say that sedation is so safe that they can provide, or at least supervise it, while they do the colonoscopy. Anesthesiologists would argue the contrary. (Disclaimer: I am one – an anesthesiologist).

Outside the United States, colonoscopy is often done without sedation. This may even be the norm, as discussed in an American Medical News article which reports on a center in California which has been doing these on a routine basis, in volunteers, with some success (78% completed the study without drugs).

It’s clear from this article that colonoscopy without sedation is possible in America. But that is hardly a surprise. What’s missing in this analysis, and all the controversy, is outcomes. Not the number of colonoscopies completed, which is what is reported in these studies, but how many lesions were picked up (or missed) during the colonoscopy. That’s a much more difficult study to do, but isn’t finding (or ruling out) cancer the reason for undergoing this rather unpleasant test?

Intuitively, an endoscopist who does not have the additional responsibility of sedation, or the time pressure of completing the study as quickly as possible in an unsedated patient, has better conditions to fulfill his primary role – to find cancerous or pre-cancerous lesions in the colon and rectum. But that’s just my suspicion – let’s hope the outcome studies get done.

Sedation for colonoscopy – do it yourself

February 4, 2008

Adults over age 50 should be screened for colon cancer. Although “virtual colonoscopy” is an appealing alternative, a “real” colonoscopy is still the gold standard. This involves a large black hosepipe-sized endoscope being inserted where the sun never shines, so its perhaps not surprising that colon cancer screening rates aren’t what they should be.

In most cases, colonoscopy isn’t extremely painful but it is uncomfortable and certainly not much fun; most patients in the United States receive some form of sedation for it. There is lots of controversy over who provides this sedation and what is given. A form of self-administered sedation creates new options. Read the rest of this entry »

Why hasn’t dad woken up after his heart surgery?

January 26, 2008

Sedation helps patients tolerate the uncomfortable bodily invasions of high tech intensive care. But when dad isn’t “waking up”, or just “isn’t himself”, many family members want to know whether sedatives are responsible for the prolonged problems with wakefulness, memory, and cognition seen in a significant number of patients who have received care in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU).

Benzodiazepines like lorazepam (Ativan)(cousin:Valium) are inexpensive, effective and safe sedatives for this purpose, with very little impact on organ systems other than the brain (that’s a good thing).Flowers

Dexmedetomidine is a new sedative drug marketed as the more easily pronounceable Precedex™. It is cousin to clonidine, a blood pressure medicine that’s been around for many years, which also has sedative properties. Precedex has pain-relieving properties and can cause the heart to slow and the blood pressure to drop in some patients.

Because Precedex works in a different way to the standard sedatives (it blocks alpha-adrenergic receptors) there is hope that it represents a better option for some conditions and procedures. Could it have less long term effect than other drugs on the brain?

Read the rest of this entry »